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Ephesus (lat. Ephesus, GK. Ἔφεσος, tour. Efes) — ancient city on the Western coast of Asia Minor, at the confluence of Caister (sovr. Small Menderes), South of Smyrna (modern. Izmir) and West of the city of Ephesus (modern Turkey). The city's population reached 225 thousand people.
His fame of Ephesus was largely due to the local cult of the Eastern goddess of fertility, over time, identified with the Greek goddess Artemis. The worship of the goddess goes from time immemorial, but the construction of her dedicated temple, one of the seven wonders of the world, began in the first half of the VI century BC.
The city was founded on the banks of the Aegean sea as a port and developed rapidly through trade. 500 years B. C. the city moved to the hill Ayasoluk near the present town of Selcuk, as the Bay silted up and completely flat. Subsequently, the sea continued to retreat from the city, and that was the reason for his decline. Earthquakes and landslides finally buried the ruins under the ground, thus preserving them for archaeologists. Today the ruins of Ephesus, for the most part reconstructed, is located at a distance of about 6 km from the sea, on the saddle between two hills.
Ephesus (in another writing — Ephesus) and its residents repeatedly mentioned in the Acts of the apostles (cf. 18:19-21, acts. 18:24-26 and 19 is almost completely Chapter of the "Acts"). The Ephesian Church appears in the Apocalypse of the Apostle and Evangelist John the theologian (cf. 1:11, Rev. 2:1-7). These books, as well as the Ephesians of the Apostle Paul are included in the New Testament.
In 1869, British scientists produced the first archaeological excavations Lysimachus founded a city on a mountain, in which were revealed to the world the beauty of the ancient city. Currently, the archaeological site of Ephesus, the size of more than ten kilometers, is located in the vicinity of the Turkish town of Selcuk. In the Selcuk Museum contains unique finds from Ephesus temples.
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